European Union Members


The European Union (EU) is the political and economic aggregation of 28 European Countries. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 and an estimated population of over 510 million.

The EU adopted common policies about human rights, immigration, international trade, and regional development. The European Union, thanks to the sum of the efforts of every member Country and regions composing them, has developed a single internal market which is the biggest in the world's economy. In order to achieve such goal, the EU created a standardized system of laws that work across the EU members and developed a policy of free movements of goods, people, and services in the whole territory of the Union.

The EU countries list grew up from 6 founding members to 28, during the last year, a referendum held in the United Kingdom has confirmed the exit of Great Britain from the EU countries list. For the first time in the EU history, a member Country decides to opt-out from the EU member states.

European Union has developed during the last 50 years, and the process is still ongoing, how many countries in Europe chose to become EU members to enter the internal market and how many countries in Europe will join as EU members to enforce their economy in a global market where the Union can be more competitive?

In this article, we list all the steps that created European Union as we know it:

European Union Timeline


ETIAS authorisation will be mandatory to enter Europe from all visa-exempt countries. UK leaves the EU countries list


Entry-Exit system is approved by the European Union.


European Union works to improve border controls with the creation of a European Coastal Guards, Entry-Exit system, and ETIAS authorisation.


Referendum held in the United Kingdom has confirmed the intention to opt-out Great Britain from the European Union.


Croatia joins EU members list.


Serbia and Albania applies to become EU member states.


Montenegro applies to become an EU state.


Treaty of Lisbon: All EU members agree to amends the two Treaty of Rome and Treaty of Maastricht about the functioning of the European Union. This treaty makes EU more democratic and better able to address problems such as climate change, with one single voice. Romania and Bulgaria join European Union.


Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia are part of the European Union member countries. The Republic of Macedonia applies to become an EU state.


Treaty if Accession of 2003. In Athens, the 15 governments of the European Union and Governments of Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia ratify the extension of European Union from 15 to 25 members. Croatia applies to join the Union.


Treaty of Amsterdam enters into force.


The Treaty of Amsterdam is signed by the European Union members. This treaty makes substantial changes to the agreements of Maastricht and amends the Treaty on European Union. This is the first case of agreement where EU members devolve certain powers to the European Parliament; this also involves legislation on immigration and adoption of civil and criminal laws. The Schengen Agreements became part of the legal system of the EU (Ireland and the United Kingdom remained outside the Schengen agreement).


Czech Republic and Slovenia apply to became EU members.


Austria, Finland and Sweden join the European Union. Eurozone now has 15 members. Bulgaria, Estonia, Slovakia, Latvia, Romania, and Lithuania apply to be part of the European Union members.


Governments of the United Kingdom, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherland, Germany, Denmark, Greece, Sweden, Finland, and Austria sign the Treaty of Accession in Corf├╣. This treaty arranged the accession of Austria, Sweden, and Finland as EU members and amended previous treaties of the European Union. Norway also signs this international agreement despite the fact that an internal referendum blocked the Country to join the EU.


Hungary and Poland apply to became EU members.


The Governments of the twelve members countries of the EEC sign the Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on European Union). The European Union is set up, and all the EU counties cooperate on a shared foreign and security policy. EURO will be developed as a currency that will be adopted in European Union.


Finland applies to become EU member state.


Sweden applies to become an EU member state.


East and West Germany reunite in the Federal Republic of Germany. Cyprus and Malta apply for EEC membership. Schengen Agreement has been extended (Schengen II), with the complete elimination of border checks.


Austria applies for EEC membership


Spain and Portugal join EEC.


The Single European Act (SEA) is a major revision of the Treaty of Rome. The Act set the European Community an objective of establishing a single market by 31 December 1992.


Belgium, France, West Germany, Luxembourg and Holland sign the first Schengen Agreement. The government agreed to allow free movements in their territory and remove border check on the borders they shared.


Greece joins EEC.


Portugal and Spain apply for membership to the EEC.


Greece applies for membership to the EEC.


Denmark, United Kingdom, and Ireland became part of EEC.


Denmark, United Kingdom, and Ireland submit their application for membership to the EEC.


Treaty of Rome: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany establish the European Economic Community (EEC). It's considered one of the footprints of modern-day European Union. The Treaty of Rome proposes reductions of customs duties and creates a single market for labor, services, goods, and capitals across the member states.


France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, Italy and West Germany sign the Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). It's the first European attempt to regulate the industrial production and create a centralized authority.
The ECSC it's considered the model of an extensive and supernational community that last until the Treaty of Rome and it'also considered as the first attempt to create a common market (only for coal and steel) between different European countries.